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Many scholars have argued that government investment in manufacturing in the southern United States during the Second World War spurted a regional economic boom that lasted into the postwar period. But much of this investment went to specialized plants, many of them unsuitable for postwar production. Large-scale, wartime government funding led to a massive increase in the number and scale of munitions facilities. By the war's end, 216 munitions establishment costing more than $3.5 billion had been built, many of them located in the south. Indeed, according to one estimate, more than 70 percent of federally financed manufacturing construction capital in Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee went into munitions plants.

 

Even in the northern regions with strong prewar manufacturing economics, these plants were difficult to deal with once the imperative of war had been removed. In the south, few industrialists had the capacity or desire to transform these factories to a peacetime function.

Accordingly, at war’s end almost all of the southern munitions facilities were shut down, placed on standby, operated at a very low capacity, or converted to nonmanufacturing functions, usually storage. Although some reopened a few years later for use during the Korean War, the impact of the special plants on the south's postwar economy was marginal at best.

 

In the passage, the mention of" Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee" serves primarily to

A. Suggest that some states were better than others at anticipating postwar economic needs

B. Identify evidence used to support a view held by scholars mentioned at the beginning of the passage

C. Suggest that federal investment in some kinds of manufacturing was Excessive

D. Identify the states that received the largest allocations of federal funds

E. Provide information to support a point about the nature of government investment made earlier in the paragraph

 

 

全文讲解

Many scholars have argued that government investment in manufacturing in the southern United States during the Second World War spurted a regional economic boom that lasted into the postwar period.(引用观点)

【句子解析】

句子主干:Many scholars have argued that+从句

从句中的句子主干:government investment spurted a boom.

从句中其他成分分析:"in manufacturing in the southern United States during the Second World War"连续三个介词短语都修饰investment;"a regional economic "是形容词做前置定语修饰boom,"that lasted into the postwar period"是定语从句做后置定语修饰boom,译为“一个持续到战后时期的区域性经济繁荣”

【本句直译】

许多学者认为,在美国南部的第二次世界大战期间,政府对制造业的投资迸发出了区域性的经济繁荣,这个经济繁荣一直持续到战后时期。

【生词注释】

·        scholars学者

·        argued主张

·        government investment政府[国家]投资

·        spurted喷出,涌出( spurt的过去式和过去分词 )

·        economic boom经济繁荣

·        postwar战后的

 

But much of this investment went to specialized plants, many of them unsuitable for postwar production.(转折,质疑上文)

【本句直译】

但这些投资大部分用于专门的工厂,其中许多不适合战后生产。

【生词注释】

·        specialized专门的; 专业的 (specialize的过去式和过去分词)

·        plants工厂

·        unsuitable不当; 不合适的

·        production 产品;生产

 

Large-scale, wartime government funding led to a massive increase in the number and scale of munitions facilities.

【句子解析】

句子主干:funding led to an increase

其他成分分析:" Large-scale, wartime government"做funding的前置定语,译为“大规模的战时的政府资金”,"increase in"译为“在……方面增加”,"of munitions facilities"修饰"the number and scale",译为“军火设备的数量和规模”

【本句直译】

大规模的战时政府资助导致了军火设施数量和规模的大幅度增加。

【生词注释】

·        Large-scale大规模的,大范围的

·        wartime战时

·        funding提供资金 “fund”的现在分词

·        massive大规模的

·        scale规模

·        munitions弹药; 军火,军需品;必需品(munition的复数)

·        facilities设备( facility的名词复数)

 

By the war's end, 216 munitions establishment costing more than $3.5 billion had been built, many of them located in the south.(举例)

【句子解析】

句子主干:establishment had been built

其他成分分析:" By the war's end"是介词短语做时间状语修饰整句,译为“截止到战争结束”,"costing more than $3.5 billion"是非谓语动词的现在分词形式做后置定语,修饰establishment,译为“花费超过3.5亿美元的公司”

【本句直译】

到战争结束时,已经建造了216个耗资超过35亿美元的军火公司,其中许多位于南方。

【生词注释】

·        establishment企业、公司

 

Indeed, according to one estimate, more than 70 percent of federally financed manufacturing construction capital in Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee went into munitions plants.(顺承上句)

【句子解析】

句子主干:more than 70 percent went into munitions plants

其他成分分析:"of federally financed manufacturing construction capital"这个介词短语内"federally financed manufacturing construction"是前置定语修饰capital,译为“由联邦政府资助的生产建设资金”,of介词短语修饰"more than 70 percent",译为“……的超过70%”,"in Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee"是地点状语

【本句直译】

事实上,据估计,在亚拉巴马州、阿肯色、密西西比州和田纳西,由联邦政府资助的生产建设资金的超过70%,从事了军火工厂。

生词注释】

·        capital 资金

·        federally同盟地; 联邦地;联邦政府地

·        financed为…供给资金,从事金融活动( finance的过去式和过去分词 )

 

Even in the northern regions with strong prewar manufacturing economics, these plants were difficult to deal with once the imperative of war had been removed.(反面对比衬托上段)

【句子解析】

句子分析:本句是主从复合句中的once引导的条件状语从句,译为“一旦……”,主句为plants were difficult to deal with,从句为once the imperative of war had been removed

其他成分分析:"in the northern regions"是地点状语,"with strong prewar manufacturing economics"是独立主格做后置定语,修饰regions,译为“伴随着强大的战前工业经济状况的北部地区”,once引导的从句是被动语态,译为“一旦战争的需要被移除了”

【本句直译】

即使在伴随着强大的战前工业经济状况的北部地区,这些工厂也是很难处理的,一旦远离了战争的需要。

【生词注释】

·        prewar战前的; 在战前

·        manufacturing制造业,工业

·        economics经济学; 经济,国家的经济状况

·        imperative势在必行的; 必要的,必要的事

·        removed离开的; 远离…的; 与…无关的; 隔代的;去除; 开除;脱去

 

In the south, few industrialists had the capacity or desire to transform these factories to a peacetime function.

【本句直译】

在南方,很少有工业家有能力或意愿把这些工厂改造成和平时期的功能。

【生词注释】

·        industrialists工业家,实业家( industrialist的名词复数 )

·        capacity 才能;生产能力

·        desire渴望; 希望

·        transform变换; 改变

 

Accordingly, at war’s end almost all of the southern munitions facilities were shut down, placed on standby, operated at a very low capacity, or converted to nonmanufacturing functions, usually storage.

【句子解析】

本句由一个主语facilities和四个并列的被动语态构成。

【本句直译】

因此,在战争结束时,几乎所有的南部军需设施或被关闭,或随时待命,或一个非常低的能力运转,或转化为非生产的功能——通常是存储。

【生词注释】

·        on standby随时准备行动,处于待命状态

·        converted 转变( convert的过去式和过去分词 ); 转化

·        storage贮存; 贮藏

 

Although some reopened a few years later for use during the Korean War, the impact of the special plants on the south's postwar economy was marginal at best.(承认特例)

【句子解析】

句子分析:本句是although引导的让步状语从句

主句分析:主句的主干为the impact was marginal,"of the special plants on the south's postwar economy"中of和on这两个介词短语都做后置定语修饰impact,译为“特种工厂在南部战后经济的影响”

从句分析:从句的主干为some reopened,"a few years later"是时间状语,"for……"译为“为了……”,"during the Korean War"做use的后置定语,译为“在朝鲜战争中的使用”

【本句直译】

虽然一些工厂在几年后在朝鲜战争中重新开放使用,但是特种工厂对南部战后经济的影响充其量只是微不足道的。

【生词注释】

·        marginal最低限度的

·        at best顶多; 至多,充其量

 

 

问题讲解

【问题直译】

In the passage, the mention of" Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee" serves primarily to

在文章中,“亚拉巴马州、阿肯色、密西西比州和田纳西”的提及主要是为了

A.   Suggest that some states were better than others at anticipating postwar economic needs

表明有些国家在预期的战后经济需求方面比其他国家好

B.    Identify evidence used to support a view held by scholars mentioned at the beginning of the passage

找出证据用于支持文章开头提到的学者持有的观点

C.   Suggest that federal investment in some kinds of manufacturing was Excessive

表明联邦政府对某些制造业的投资过度

D.   Identify the states that received the largest allocations of federal funds

确定了获得联邦基金最大拨款的州

E.    Provide information to support a point about the nature of government investment made earlier in the paragraph

提供信息来支持一个观点,关于在本段前面提出的政府投资本质的一个观点

 

【答案解析】

本题为目的题,找到问题所在文中的句子,Indeed, according to one estimate, more than 70 percent of federally financed manufacturing construction capital in Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee went into munitions plants.看到"Indeed"说明本句和上一句的关系是顺承关系,本句和上一句都是作为例子来论证but后面的观点,即“这个投资的大多数都被用于专门的工厂,他们中的许多都不适用于战后生产。”所以应该选E选项。

 

【生词注释】

·        primarily首先; 首要地,主要地; 根本上; 本来

·        anticipating预见; 预料; 预感( anticipate的现在分词 ); 先于…行动

·        economic needs经济需求,经济需要

·        Identify确定; 识别,认出; 使参与; 把…看成一样; 认同

·        excessive过多的; 过分的; 过度的,极度的; 过逾

·        allocations配给( allocation的名词复数); 分配额; 划拨的款项; 拨给的场地

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